P S Y C H O L O G Y I N A C T I O N Advertising and Marketing Psychology

Business Psychology Clinical Psychology Criminal Psychology Death and Dying Psychology

Family Psychology Media Psychology

Performance Psychology Rehabilitation Psychology

School Psychology Sports Psychology


By Amy Sterling Casil Anne S. Walters, PhD, ABPP, Consultant Business Psychology


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Introduction: What Is Psychology? .............................. 6 Chapter 1: Becoming a Business Psychologist . ...... 10 Chapter 2: History and Development of the Field ..... 24 Chapter 3: Common and Unusual Issues ................. 42 Chapter 4: How Psychology Helps . .......................... 60 Chapter 5: Takeaways for Everyday Life ................. 74 Series Glossary of Key Terms ...................................... 90 Further Reading & Internet Resources ...................... 93 Index . ............................................................................. 94 Author’s Biography and Credits ................................. 96 KEY I CONS TO LOOK FOR : Words to Understand: These words with their easy-to-understand definitions will increase the reader’s understanding of the text while building vocabulary skills. Sidebars: This boxed material within the main text allows readers to build knowledge, gain insights, explore possibilities, and broaden their perspectives by weaving together additional information to provide realistic and holistic perspectives. Educational Videos: Readers can view videos by scanning our QR codes, providing them with additional educational content to supplement the text. Examples include news coverage, moments in history, speeches, iconic sports moments, and much more! Text-Dependent Questions: These questions send the reader back to the text for more careful attention to the evidence presented there. Research Projects: Readers are pointed toward areas of further inquiry connected to each chapter. Suggestions are provided for projects that encourage deeper research and analysis. Series Glossary of Key Terms: This back-of-the-book glossary contains terminology used throughout this series. Words found here increase the reader’s ability to read and comprehend higher-level books and articles in this field.

What Is Psychology? When we look up the meaning of the word psychology , we learn that it comes from two Greek words—“psyche,” which means “mind,” and “logia,” which means “the study of.” Hence, psychology is “the study of the mind.” (Merriam-Webster.com) Essentially, psychology aims to study and better understand emotions, thoughts, and behaviors, with the goal of benefiting society. Those who choose to study psychology generally have a strong urge to help others, though the definition of “others” can vary across concentric circles of influence, from the individual to the family and then on to broader systems such as a school, neighborhood, or society. That urge to help and understand people and their behavior is perhaps the most basic motivator that leads an individual to want to pursue the study of psychology. Some describe psychology as a “hub science” to depict the way that it links to the social sciences, the natural sciences, medicine, and the humanities. In university settings, however, psychology is considered a social science. Social sciences deal with the study of human behavior in its social and cultural aspects. They include fields such as anthropology, sociology, political science, history, education, and economics. These fields are certainly diverse, and yet one can see the commonality: these disciplines all teach us more about how the individual and society interact and influence each other. Another important distinction is the one between psychology and psychiatry. Simply put, psychologists pursue


Business Psychology

graduate level degrees (master’s or doctorate) in psychology, whereas psychiatrists complete medical school prior to specializing in psychiatry. After medical school (and receiving an MD degree), there are three years of psychiatry training to become an adult psychiatrist. If they want to specialize further (such as in child and adolescent psychiatry or forensics), there is additional training in this specialty field for several years and then they must take a board examination to become certified in their specialty area. Psychiatrists can prescribe medication, and psychologists cannot (although in some rural or underserved areas this is an option for psychologists). Psychiatrists are also uniquely suited to understand biological or medical contributions to mental illness. On the other hand, some day-to-day practices of psychiatrists do not look that different from those of psychologists. What does studying psychology entail? There are so many options! Within psychology, there are multiple fields of study. Some of them you will learn about in these volumes, but it would take far too many volumes to cover all of them. If you’re interested in exploring more about psychology beyond this series, you might consider developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, and comparative psychology. Developmental psychology is the study of development throughout a person’s life, from infancy through old age. Some of the more famous developmental psychologists have been Jean Piaget, who identified stages for the development of cognition in children, and B. F. Skinner, who studied the process of learning and taught us about the concepts of operant and classical conditioning. Another field, cognitive psychology, studies human thought: one famous psychologist in this field is Noam Chomsky, who studied the development of language. Comparative psychologists study animal behavior, and in this area Konrad



Lorenz studied the process by which baby geese “imprint” on the first object they see after birth. If you Google Professor Lorenz, you may see pictures of goslings following him around the yard. Although there are many ways to cluster the various subfields of psychology, one common distinction is between clinical and nonclinical applications, sometimes also referred to as applied psychology vs. basic research . Clinical or applied psychology focuses on understanding and treating psychiatric disorders that challenge day-to-day functioning. Treatment is derived from an evidence base that assesses outcomes or the ways that a treatment is effective. Establishing an evidence base is an important aspect of the work of a psychologist. Some devote their careers to this work, which can overlap with nonclinical or research applications. Researchers use scientific methods to advance knowledge in the field in a variety of topics. These psychologists work in academic settings as well as industry and organizations. Why would you want to become a psychologist or even to study psychology? The field of psychology has countless applications to everyday life, and as such, it can be a jumping off point for many careers. The reader will learn about different psychology careers in these volumes. What’s more, as a major in college, psychology can be applied to a variety of careers outside of psychology, such as human resources, teaching, criminal justice, and many others. For those who have the option to take an elective psychology course in high school, it can be a wonderful opportunity to get a jump start on the weighty decision of what to major in and to see whether the subject matter interests you. In writing this introduction, I can give you a window into a personal choice. I am a child clinical psychologist and have devoted my career to helping children and their families. I work


Business Psychology

in an academic medical center, which means that although I do clinical work, I also teach and supervise psychology students at many phases of their career. In addition, I write for various venues and conduct applied research into the outcomes of the treatment we provide. I am also an administrator, and as such I attend to aspects of psychology as a “business”: hiring and training those who do the work in our setting and tracking our budget, to name a few examples. One of the best things about this career is that every day is different, and yet the common experience is of helping others. In producing this series, we hope that we can provide a window into the varied choices you can make with a degree in psychology. From professor to therapist, working with toddlers or the elderly, teaching business psychology or conducting family therapy, there is likely at least one application of the subject of psychology that will appeal to you. I hope the exploration is rewarding!

Anne S. Walters, PhD, ABPP Clinical Director Children’s Partial Hospital Program Clinical Professor Alpert Medical School of Brown University



Business psychologists study workplaces.


Compensation: In business and employment, the total of wages and benefits offered to an employee. Dissertation: A formal research process and written report to fulfill the requirements for an advanced (PhD) degree. Internship: A professional learning experience that offers meaningful, practical work related to a student’s area of study and career. Onboarding: The process for new employees to gain knowledge, skills, and behavior to be effective on the job. Stakeholder: A person who has an interest in a business’s success.


Becoming a Business Psychologist

Business psychologists study workplaces, which include the behavior of employees and managers as well as the work environment. They can assess and evaluate work teams based on small group theory, and they can focus on employee satisfaction, company culture, team-building, productivity, and morale. Business psychologists can also study and work in areas related to business strategy, stakeholder relationships, business functioning and performance, and business operations, such as project management and training or coaching. Leadership development and coaching are also areas that business psychologists can work in. At a minimum, business psychologists need a master’s degree to work professionally in the field. Many business psychologists also have a PhD in business psychology or related fields of psychology, and some may also have a master’s degree


in business administration (MBA). Business psychology graduates can blend different types of business management skills along with psychology to specialize in a variety of consulting, counseling, analyst, recruitment, training, and related fields, in government and business organizations. Business psychologists are influencing the careers and workplaces of today and developing new pathways for businesses and workplaces of the future. Under the broad banner of business psychology, you have many options of career and educational paths. Most people with careers in business psychology or industrial organizational (I-O) psychology started out with a bachelor’s degree in psychology. However, some colleges and universities offer bachelor’s degrees in business administration with concentrations in different specialties of business psychology. While students are pursuing their bachelor’s degree, they may have options for internships that help them to gain experience and learn more about specialties and concentrations in the field. Most bachelor’s degrees in business psychology (or business administration, with a concentration in psychology) require 120 units of completed coursework. Each unit equals one hour per week of classroom education, or approximately five classes per semester for four years. Online programs offer flexibility in time options and scheduling. It’s possible to complete some programs in less than four years. In order to work professionally in business psychology, candidates need to complete a master’s degree and perform a practicum, which is a course of direct study and work under the supervision of a PhD psychologist who is authorized to supervise Educational Pathways for Business Psychologists


Business Psychology

Most people in business psychology start out with a bachelor’s degree in psychology.

Chapter 1: Becoming a Business Psychologist


A practicum is a course of direct study under the supervision of a PhD psychologist.

interns and degree candidates. According to the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), interns can benefit from work experience in a couple ways: Internal internships: Working at a company affiliated with the degree-granting institution under the supervision of an I-O psychologist. External internships: Working at an external consulting firm, with internship supervision at the degree-granting institution.


Business Psychology

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