Acceptance, not Assimilation While there was initially some resistance from the Amazigh as Arab control spread, it waned within a couple of generations, and by the eleventh century, Northern Africa was predominantly Muslim, including many Amazigh. For those Amazigh, acceptance was initially in a governmental and political sense as opposed to religious. Traditional African religions


To call a Northern Africa souk a marketplace is like calling the nearby Walmart Superstore a local mom-and-pop bodega. Ancient records indicated the first souks developed around 3000 BCE in Persia (known there as bazaars) as a way for local traders to barter or sell their wares. Caravans would set up a one-day market outside of town as they passed through. More than just a retail venue, musicians would often entertain potential customers. By the tenth century, souks were commonplace in the region. As populations grew, the souks moved inside city walls and became permanent. Both small, local cultural events and important religious festivals would take place at the souk . Today souks are bustling, colorful marketplaces that sell all manner of goods and food. From Dakhla, Western Sahara, to Cairo, Egypt, souks are located in the medina (old town section) and have become popular tourist destinations. The most famous souks are in Marrakesh, Morocco, which are laid out like giant mazes. Some are so big that tourists are warned about getting lost inside. One tradition of the souk that endures is haggling over prices, which is part of the fun for both buyers and sellers.



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