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Copyright © 2022 by Mason Crest, an imprint of National Highlights, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from the publisher. First printing 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN (hardback) 978-1-4222-4521-7 ISBN (series) 978-1-4222-4516-3 ISBN (ebook) 978-1-4222-7290-9 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data on file Names: Dean, Mary (Mary Elizabeth), author. Title: Fashion / Mary Dean. Description: Hollywood, FL : Mason Crest,  | Series: High-interest STEAM Identifiers: LCCN 2021014295 | ISBN 9781422245217 (hardback) | ISBN 9781422272909 (ebook) Subjects: LCSH: Fashion design–Vocational guidance–Juvenile literature. | Research, Industrial–Juvenile literature. | Science–Juvenile literature. Classification: LCC TT507.5 .D43 2022 | DDC 746.9/2023–dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2021014295 Developed and Produced by National Highlights, Inc. Editor: Andrew Luke Production: Crafted Content, LLC
Chapter 1: SCIENCE IN FASHION ��������������������������������������� 7 Chapter 2: TECHNOLOGY IN FASHION ������������������������������ 23 Chapter 3: ENGINEERING IN FASHION ����������������������������� 37 Chapter 4: ART IN FASHION ����������������������������������������������� 51 Chapter 5: MATH IN FASHION �������������������������������������������� 65 Further Reading ������������������������������������������������������������������ 76 Internet Resources & Educational Video Links �������������� 77 Index ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 78 Author Biography & Photo Credits ����������������������������������� 80
KEY ICONS TO LOOK FOR
Words to Understand: These words with their easy-to-understand definitions will increase the readers’ understanding of the text while building vocabulary skills. Sidebars: This boxed material within the main text allows readers to build knowledge, gain insights, explore possibilities, and broaden their perspectives by weaving together additional information to provide realistic and holistic perspectives. Educational Videos: Readers can view videos by scanning our QR codes, providing them with additional educational content to supplement the text. Examples include news coverage, moments in history, speeches, iconic sports moments, and much more! Text-Dependent Questions: These questions send the reader back to the text for more careful attention to the evidence presented there. Research Projects: Readers are pointed toward areas of further inquiry connected to each chapter. Suggestions are provided for projects that encourage deeper research and analysis.
WORDS TO UNDERSTAND
finishes— a process or technique that is applied to a fabric to make it resistant against certain elements like rain or sun polymer— a substance that is made up of ingredients that all have the same or similar components synthetic fibers— any man-made material that can be spun into threads to create clothing and other fashion accessories textiles— a piece of fabric or woven cloth tumor— a swollen part of the body that is caused by an abnormal growth of tissue
SCIENCE IN FASHION
The world of fashion is more than just runways and red carpets. Beneath the surface, science plays a huge role in this industry. This is because producing the beautiful garments that grace the pages of magazines and strut down the runways requires a whole scientific process to take place first. Thanks to science, people can express themselves through their own personal sense of style, no matter what that style is. WHEN SCIENCE AND FASHION COLLIDE At their core, both designers and scientists are working toward the same main goal—to create something new that makes a difference in the world. When scientist Dr. Yuly Fuentes-Medel came to this realization, it led her to create the world’s first scientist-fashion designer collaboration, aptly named Descience. This Boston-based collaboration aims to use scientific research as inspiration for cutting-edge fashion pieces that start a
As part of the Descience collaboration, one artist was inspired by cancer research at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston.
conversation among those who see them on the runway. One such collaboration occurred in 2014 between designer Arielle Gogh and cancer researcher Esther Baena from Boston’s Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Gogh drew the inspiration for her designs from the cells of a malignant tumor Baena was studying, as they morphed from healthy to cancerous. The great thing about the mash up of this type of science and fashion is the conversation it starts between people who are exposed to the concept. For example, the clothing items that were inspired by aspects of cancer have the potential to start a dialog about the importance of self-care, and it also helps people to understand scientific concepts on a more personal level. For this particular
example, the clothing articles were representative of the color changes in cells at different stages of cancer, so when the models walked down the runway, each of them represented a different stage
in the same order they would occur in a person’s body. FASHION AND CHEMISTRY
The fabrics that make up the clothes we wear have deep roots in the science industry. The process of creating the fibers that we use to weave clothing is a complicated scientific process that must be completed with great accuracy to ensure the best results. Chemists play a huge role in developing textiles that make up the fabric of our favorite outfits. The Chemistry of Fabric Finishes Many fashion retailers across the globe create garments that are resistant to things like water, oil, and wine. These fabric finishes are specially formulated to make clothes “life-proof.” This means that when you wear garments that are treated with certain chemicals called finishes , the fabric will not absorb water and oil. Instead, the finish creates a barrier, causing the surface of the clothing to repel spills and stains. There are also finishes on the market that protect against a wide host of other elements. For example, one fabric treatment protects against harmful rays from the sun, which prevents fading or the breaking down of fabric over time. Some textile designers even apply chemicals to fabric that soften it, making for a comfortable and cozy outfit after finishing is complete.
SCIENCE IN FASHION
The sun’s harsh rays can cause fabric to fade over time.
The process of creating these finishes is heavily based on chemistry. The first step to adding any finish is to formulate it. Chemists access several different ingredients and test them on many fabrics to see how well they stand up against certain elements. This is important because since there are many different materials that clothes are woven from, each one might react to a given formula in a different way. Chemists also must take into account fabrics that have mixed elements. Most of the clothing that you see at retail stores is affordable because it mixes a few different inexpensive materials for a durable but low-cost product. A good example of this would be a T-shirt made from a mix of cotton and polyester. When formulating a solution to apply to this type of clothing, chemists will need to consider ingredients that are proven to be effective at protecting both materials.
CAREERS IN FASHION: TEXTILE CHEMISTRY
If your love for chemistry and fashion is unmatched, you might enjoy a career in textile chemistry. As a textile chemist, you would be responsible for making the compounds needed to create synthetic fibers like nylon and polyester. You might even be the next inventor of a brand new type of fiber!
For example, imagine a chemist is treating a cotton–polyester blend garment for water resistance. During the finishing process, he or she applies a chemical that is known to work well to protect polyester from absorbing water. However, this ingredient happens to be ineffective at protecting cotton fibers. In this scenario, even if the ingredients were applied generously over the entire piece of clothing, it would not end up being water resistant. This is because, in order for a treatment to fully protect against an element, it needs to form a bond over the surface of the fabric. Since the chemical makeup doesn’t work on cotton fibers, it is not able to create a barrier on the surface of these materials. This would effectively leave tiny holes throughout the layer on top of the fabric, allowing water to seep through, and ultimately making it susceptible to this element. This is why it is essential that chemists pay close attention not only to their formulations but also to the fabrics for which it is intended. If a certain material is not tested during the trial phase, the end result could be detrimental to the garment to which the solution is applied. Luckily, chemists are trained to be extremely
SCIENCE IN FASHION
Polyacrylonitrile is an example of a long-chain synthetic polymer used to make clothes resistant to fading.
thorough and go through many tests before a formulation reaches its final stages. For example, according to an article published in the journal Advanced Functional Materials , scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have developed a short-chain polymer that will work with natural fibers. The industry has long relied on compounds with long-chain polymers, which are slow to biodegrade and only resist water, rather than repelling it. The breakthrough short-chain compound will be water repellant, and more environmentally friendly. Tests were conducted to determine if a process called initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), could then apply the compound. The process combines multiple manufacturing steps and therefore is more cost efficient. iCVD only works with short-chain polymers. Chemistry and Synthetic Fabrics There are many things to consider in any discussion of the fashion industry, and like any business, budget is near the top of the list. While natural fibers such as silk make for popular fashion, they aren’t the cheapest things to produce. On average, silk can cost a whopping five dollars a pound to produce. These high overhead costs encouraged chemists and fabric companies to seek a more cost-effective option. What is the answer to high raw material production cost? Synthetic fibers . First introduced in 1941, polyester remains one of the most popular synthetic materials on the market today. This material is cheap to produce, coming in at about one dollar per pound, and is extremely durable. So durable, in fact, that scientists estimate it would take more than 200 years to fully decompose.
SCIENCE IN FASHION
Polyester is a cheap, durable man-made material used to make many kinds of cost-effective garments.
Two British scientists named John Whinfield and James Dickson first created polyester. When they came up with the idea, it was due to the shortage of cotton during World War II. Rather than going without new clothing, they decided to come up with a man-made fiber for garments that are made of oil, which was much more easily found during this time period. The process of creating this new type of fabric had a lot to do with chemistry. In order to form the fibers needed to weave a new piece of clothing, the formula they used had to be just right. If even one ingredient was off, the material would end up being too stiff or too flimsy to hold up the construction of a garment. It was also extremely important that the material be as durable as possible since some of the fabric created from it would be used for uniforms for soldiers in the war.
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