Women in Anthropology

Women in Chemistry

Women in Engineering

Women in Environmental Sciences

Women in Information Technology

Women in Medicine

Women in Physics

Women in Space Exploration

Women Inventors



By Andrew Morkes and Shaina Indovino

Mason Crest Philadelphia • Miami

PO Box 221876, Hollywood, FL 33022 (866) MCP-BOOK (toll-free) • www.masoncrest.com

Copyright © 2022 by Mason Crest, an imprint of National Highlights, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America First printing 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Series ISBN: 978-1-4222-4499-9 Hardcover ISBN: 978-1-4222-4502-6 ebook ISBN: 978-1-4222-7306-7 Cataloging-in-Publication Data on file with the Library of Congress Developed and Produced by National Highlights, Inc. Production: Andy Morkes Cover and Interior Design: Tim Palin Layout: Priceless Digital Media Publisher’s Note: Websites listed in this book were active at the time of publication. The publisher is not responsible for websites that have changed their address or discontinued operation since the date of publication. The publisher reviews and updates the websites each time the book is reprinted.

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WORDS TO UNDERSTAND: These words, with their easy-to-understand definitions, will increase readers’ understanding of the text while building vocabulary skills. SIDEBARS: This boxed material within the main text allows readers to build knowledge, gain insights, explore possibilities, and broaden their perspectives by weaving together additional information to provide realistic and holistic perspectives. EDUCATIONAL VIDEOS: Readers can view videos by scanning our QR codes, providing them with additional educational content to supplement the text. TEXT-DEPENDENT QUESTIONS: These questions send the reader back to the text for more careful attention to the evidence presented there. RESEARCH PROJECTS: Readers are pointed toward areas of further inquiry connected to each chapter. Suggestions are provided for projects that encourage deeper research and analysis. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Chapter 1: Careers in Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Lillian Gilbreth: Industrial Engineer 27 Chapter 2: Terms of the Trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Grace Hopper: Early Computer Engineer 40 Chapter 3: Educational Training and Salaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Treena Arinzeh: Biomedical Engineer 57 Chapter 4: Exploring Careers in Engineering 62 Grace Lieblein: Automobile Engineer 75 Chapter 5: The Future of Engineering and Careers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Aprille Ericsson: Aerospace Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Further Reading and Internet Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Educational Video Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Photo Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Author and Consultant Biographies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Key Icons to Look For


Have you wondered how the natural world works? Are you curious how science could help sick people get better? Do you want to learn more about our planet and universe? Are you excited to use technology to learn and share ideas? Do you want to build something new? Scientists, engineers, and doctors are among the many types of people who think deeply about science and nature, who often have new ideas on how to improve life in our world. We live in a remarkable time in human history. The level of understanding and rate of progress in science and technology have never been greater. Major advances in these areas include the following: • Computer scientists and engineers are building mobile and internet technology to help people access and share information at incredible speeds. • Biologists and chemists are creating medicines that can target and get rid of harmful cancer cells in the body.

An engineer works on a robotics prototype.

There are many opportunities in engineering, including in chemical engineering.

• Engineers are guiding robots on Mars to explore the history of water on that planet. • Physicists are using math and experiments to estimate the age of the universe to be greater than 13 billion years. • Scientists and engineers are building hybrid cars that can be better for our environment.



Scientists are interested in discovering and understanding key principles in nature, including biological, chemical, mathematical, and physical aspects of our world. They observe, measure, and experiment in a systematic way in order to test and improve their understanding. Engineers focus on applying scientific knowledge and math to find creative solutions for technical problems and to develop real products for people to use. There are many types of engineering, including computer, electrical, mechanical, civil, chemical, and biomedical engineering. Some people have also found that studying science or engineering can help them succeed in other professions such as law, business, and medicine. Both women and men can be successful in science and engineering. This series provides information on education and careers in a variety of science fields. It also highlights women leaders who have made significant contributions across many scientific fields, including chemistry, medicine, anthropology, engineering, and physics. Historically, women have faced barriers to training and building careers in science, which makes some of these stories even more amazing. While not all barriers have been overcome, our society has made tremendous progress in educating and advancing women in science. Today, there are schools, organizations, and resources that help women to pursue careers as scientists or engineers at the highest levels of achievement and leadership. The goals of this series are to help you with the following: 1. Learn about women scientists, engineers, doctors, and inventors who have made a major impact in science and our society 2. Understand different types of science and engineering and key terms in these fields 3. Learn more about the variety of educational paths one can pursue to enter these careers

4. Explore science and math in school and real life 5. Learn about the employment outlook in science and engineering specialties

You can do a lot of things to learn more about science, math, and engineering. Explore topics in books or online, take a class at school, go to science camp, WOMEN IN ENGINEERING


or do experiments at home. More important, talk to a real scientist, doctor, or engineer! Call or email your local college to find students and professors. They would love to meet with you. Ask your doctors about their education and training. Or you can check out these helpful resources: • Nova has very cool videos about science, including profiles on real-life women scientists and engineers: www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova. • National Geographic has excellent photos and stories to inspire people to care about the planet: www.nationalgeographic.com/science. Here are examples of online courses for students, of which many are free: 1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) OpenCourseWare for high school: https://ocw.mit.edu/high-school 2. Khan Academy tutorials and courses: www.khanacademy.org 3. Stanford University Online High School: https://onlinehighschool.stanford.edu Other skills will become important as you get older. Build strong communication skills by asking questions and sharing your ideas in class. Ask for advice or help when needed from your teachers, mentors, tutors, or classmates. Be curious and resilient: Learn from your successes and mistakes. The best scientists and engineers do. Learning science and math is one of the most important things that you can do in school. Knowledge and experience in these areas will teach you how to think and how the world works, and they can provide you with many adventures and paths in life. I hope you will explore science, engineering, and medicine—you could make a difference in this world. Ann Lee-Karlon, PhD Past-President, Association for Women in Science




Words to Understand infrastructure: the systems of a city, region, or nation, such as communication, sewage, water, transportation, bridges, dams, and electric microbe: a microorganism causing disease, such as bacteria microorganisms: tiny life forms that cannot be seen with the naked eye think outside the box: the ability to think creatively and in unconventional ways to solve a problem

work/life balance: a term that is used to describe the need to have a healthy balance of time on the job and time spent with family and on leisure activities worker productivity: the amount of work a person can complete in a specific amount of time


THE WORLD OF ENGINEERS Do you find yourself wondering how something works? Have you ever taken a complex object apart just to see if you could put it back together again? Do you see something that already exists and wonder how you could make it even better? If so, you may already be on your way to becoming an engineer! Engineers are problem solvers who like learning everything they can. Engineers can become experts in various fields of science, such as mathematics, chemistry, computer science, and physics. Then they use this knowledge to help the world. Some engineers work on physical objects, such as machines or bridges. Other engineers are programmers who design software for computers or other devices. Others are experts in biological or chemical processes. Engineers may invent something new or improve something that already exists. Sometimes they are asked to repair a broken object so that it can work again. Becoming a female engineer can seem challenging. This is because engineers need many years of education, and women have not always been able to obtain an equal

THE BEST ENGINEERING JOBS Each year, U.S. News & World Report creates a list of the best jobs in the United States. Those that rank high on its list offer an excellent salary, strong employment prospects with lots of jobs available, good work/life balance , and low or manageable stress levels. Here are its top engineering-related jobs: please revise this list so it reads as follows: 1. Mechanical engineer 2. Cartographer 3. Petroleum engineer 4. Civil engineer 5. Biomedical engineer 6. Architect 7. Environmental engineer 8. Environmental engineering technician



education. Even when women could become educated, men have not always accepted female engineers. Some men think that women cannot do as good a job in engineering as men can. Of course this is untrue. Several very important female engineers have fought for the acceptance of women within the field. Today, anyone can become an engineer as long as she works hard.

Although they sometimes face challenges in the workplace, most female engineers find their careers to be interesting and rewarding.


WHY BE AN ENGINEER? Engineers are constantly improving the lives of those around them. Many engineers discover their passion at an early age. This is good, because learning to think like an engineer can take a lifetime. No matter what field of engineering you choose to enter, your work will always be needed. As humans rely more and more on technology, even more engineers are necessary. The pay for an engineer isn’t bad, either! The starting salary of an engineer with only four years of college experience is about $65,000 a year, with chemical, electrical, and mechanical engineers earning more than $70,000 straight out of college. As you prove yourself and gain more promotions, your pay ENGINEERS WITHOUT BORDERS Engineers Without Borders brings the advances of engineering to other countries. Countries that are not yet as advanced as the United States, Canada, and much of Europe are known as developing countries . Frequently, these nations have trouble finding the natural resources we might take for granted. These include drinking water, food, and energy. This is where Engineers Without Borders comes in. It is a huge organization made up of nearly 17,000 members with projects in more than forty countries. It uses the knowledge of engineering professionals and students to help people find clean water, build safe homes, and harness energy. Visit www.ewb-usa.org to learn more.

Members of Engineers Without Borders help a Peruvian village build a system that provided its people with clean drinking water.

will increase. For engineers, the sky is the limit. You might even launch your own engineering company, or write a book about engineering. If nothing else makes you want to be an engineer, perhaps the opportunity to see your work in real life may. By being a part of something big, you can say you helped create something very important. You could help design a new building, assist in creating a new popular car model, or develop a new type of biomedical equipment that helps to save lives. As an engineering student, you may have opportunities to get hands-on experience. Engineers design and maintain all sorts of machines and structures: everything from heating systems to bridges to chemical compounds. Finally, being an engineer lets you look at the world differently. You will be more likely to understand why things are the way they are. If you have a thirst for knowledge and understanding, this career will never let you down. CAREER PATHS Female engineers are not as rare as they used to be. Many successful female and male engineers want to encourage younger women to get interested in the field. Nevertheless, the idea that only men are engineers is still a common stereotype. Break free of that mold and think about what you truly enjoy. If it involves engineering, pursue it! Within the field of engineering, the possibilities are endless. Almost every scientific field has a need for an engineer somewhere, including for research. It’s not unusual for engineers to become interested in a certain subject and apply their knowledge to that field. If an area you are interested in doesn’t have an engineering component, you can always try to invent it yourself! Some of the greatest female engineers weren’t afraid to introduce something new. There are more than forty engineering specialties—from mechanical and industrial engineering to civil, electronics, and environmental engineering. The following sections provide more information on the most popular career paths.



Chemical Engineering These engineers’ efforts are on the molecular level. They don’t always work directly with chemicals, but they do need a strong background and understanding of them. A lot of chemical engineers work in a lab and use a computer. Chemical engineers use their knowledge of chemistry, engineering, mathematics, and physics to help companies manufacture chemicals, drugs, food, fuel, and many other products that people use every day. Others work in the life sciences, environmental protection, and biotechnology. Biochemical engineers are interested in the human body and do research in the medical field. Some engineers help invent or improve machines that diagnose and treat patients. Others create new medicines to fight disease. Their inventions help doctors take better care of people. If you like to help people, this is one way to do it!

A civil engineer reviews blueprints at a work site.

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