The drummer was a critical part of any jazz or R&B band, providing a rhythmic foundation for the music.

of gospel and rhythm and blues that merged together religious and secular themes. The word “soul” also became a symbol of pride and identity for African Americans. And singer James Brown became known as “Soul Brother Number One.” His hit recordings—with titles like “Say It Loud—I’m Black and I’m Proud” (1968)—marked the beginning of a new movement. For the first time, African Americans held their heads high and asserted, “Black is beautiful!” Across America, Brown was a spokesperson for this movement. The way James Brown blended together blues, gospel, jazz, and country vocal styles made him one of the most influential


Chapter 1: The Roots of Hip-Hop

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