and typically focused on Methodist and Protestant churches. The first American revival took place in the 1730s and 1740s and was called the First Great Awakening. A revival focused on rebuilding a connection with God and Jesus and was fueled by a break between traditionalists in the church and those who wanted to modernize the religion to add new rituals and concepts of self-awareness. One of the biggest changes common during these revivals was a focus on gospel music that was easier to sing and which was simpler for the common person to understand. The revival movement of the late 1800s was started by Dwight L. Moody and the Holiness- Pentecostal movement. This church focused on using celebratory music—which

Philip Bliss helped to popularize gospel music during the nineteenth century. He donated most of the money that he earned from these songs to Christian charities.

was similar to the African-American gospel music of the time— and was designed to not only provide an outlet for religious energy but to entertain and enlighten listeners. Many popular musicians originated during this time, such as Ira D. Sankey, arguably the most successful of the many gospel singers of the time. Sankey was originally working


R&B, Soul, and Gospel

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