Key Terms Aboriginal: A people who have lived or existed in a region for a long period of time, but also related to tribes, customs, and artistic endeavors. Afrobeat: A music genre associated with West Africa, usually defined by a mix of American jazz, fuji, and funk influences; originated in Ghana around 1920s. Alternative culture: The fringe of society, or outside of the mainstream; often associated with subcultures. Belly dance: Undulating and rhythmic movement that originated in Egypt and is sometimes associated with the Middle East or Arabic culture. Berber: The indigenous people located in North Africa (from Algeria, Morocco, or Tunisia); farmers or migrant workers. Bonfire: A large controlled fire used for celebration, communal activities, or ritualistic purposes, derived from Celtic midsummer festivals and traditionally used to ward off evil spirits. Decommodification: Sustained consumption, supporting a standard of living that is socially acceptable and sustainable; sometimes also refers to independent living, without requirements of money. Folk festival: An event that usually focuses on the traditional music, crafts, and art of the local culture; artistic representation of the everyman. Hallucinogenic: A substance that induces people to hear sounds, see lights, and feel sensations that aren’t really there. Harvest: The processing of gathering a crop; a supply of anything. Indigenous: The people or things belonging or native to a place or region. Krampus: A horned creature in Central European folklore and legend, often described as having the characteristics of a goat and demon. Legend: A popular story that has been passed down; usually thought to be of historical significance but having no authenticity. Lent: A time of fasting and penitence in the Christian religious tradition, beginning on Ash Wednesday and lasting up until Easter. Nomadic: A tribe in the hunter-gathering tradition; a transient lifestyle that involves roaming, moving around, or even following the herds. Oktoberfest: A festival in the fall or autumn, traditionally taking place in Germany, but with spin-off events taking place all over the world; often involves a celebration of the Bavarian culture, food, and drink. Origin stories: The backstory or explanation of where the people come from, often with mythic or supernatural explanations for creation or evolution. Pilgrimage: A religious expedition or journey to a sacred or special place; a crusade or mission. Powwow: A Native American ceremony or gathering, meaning “spiritual leader,” involving singing and dancing, as well as traditional feasting and socialization. Ritual: A solemn ceremony or rite; an established religious service or observance; prescribed actions. Sacrifice: The act of giving up or surrendering a person, object, or animal; an offering to a supernatural or divine being. Secular: A worldly or irreligious interest, specifically focusing on nonspiritual concerns. Solstice: The longest day of the calendar year and the first day of summer; also the shortest day of the year and the first day of winter; meaning sol (the sun) and stice (to make stand). Storytelling: The activity of telling tales, often having social and cultural importance to educate, inform, and preserve traditional values. Whirling dervish: A Sufi dancer who attends a tekke school to receive intensive training to perform the Sema dance; originated in Turkey and inspired by Mevlana Jalaluddin Rumi.



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