Key Terms Abstract: Art, including sculpture, that depicts shapes and forms that are not easily recognized as people, animals, or natural objects. Alabaster: A type of white gypsum that is partially transparent when carved and polished. Armature: A framework that supports a clay sculpture while it is being created. Assemblage: A type of sculpture made from different objects assembled into a new whole. Bas-relief: A type of low relief in which figures are raised only slightly from the underlying stone or metal. Brass: A gold-colored metal alloy made from copper and zinc. Bronze: A brownish metal alloy made from a mixture of copper and tin. Bust: A sculpture representing a human head and shoulders. Carving: The oldest sculptural technique, in which material is removed from a basic shape using tools. Casting: A method of creating multiple sculptures by pouring material (plaster, molten metal, plastic, glass) into a mold. Chisel: A metal carving tool used for wood or stone carving. Figurative: A type of art that depicts a recognizable person, animal, or object from the natural world. Firing: The process of heating clay to produce a durable, hard final product. Frieze: A horizontal area of decoration on buildings, including Greek or Roman temples. Glazing: A ceramic material that can be painted on clay and used in the firing process. Lost-wax method: The method of using a wax cast to create a finished metal product. Mobile: A sculpture with moving parts, pioneered by the twentieth-century artist Alexander Calder. Modeling: The technique of adding material like clay onto a base form to create a sculpture. Mold: The reverse impression of a sculpture that can be used to create copies through casting. Monument: A building and sculptural element created to draw attention to or memorialize a person, religious entity, or event. Patina: A protective, colored coating created naturally or deliberately by artists on bronze, copper, or iron sculptures. Plaster cast: A plaster copy of a sculpture that is usually used to create a mold for metal sculpture casting. Plinth: The base of a sculpture. Relief: A type of sculpture in metal or stone in which figures are partially raised above the background. Terra-cotta: A type of reddish pottery that can be fired at lower temperatures than other ceramics. Whiteware: A kind of white clay pottery often found in South America and Asia.
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