Scholarship Since the 1920s, many scholars and critics have written about the uniqueness of Hopper’s art. Hopper’s favorite theme of alienation has also been a frequent topic of analysis. As the totality of Hopper scholarship is far too exten- sive to discuss within a single chapter, this section focuses on the four scholars whose works have proven particularly helpful in researching this book. Hopper’s earliest biographer and an ardent sup- porter throughout Hopper’s lifetime was Lloyd Goodrich. Though Goodrich wrote numerous books and articles on Hopper, his most compre- hensive is Edward Hopper, published in 1971. Goodrich’s book was the first truly informative biography on Hopper and laid the groundwork for others to follow. One of the more intriguing articles on Hopper was written by Brian O’Doherty in December of 1964 for Art in America . O’Doherty had the opportunity to interview Edward Hopper in his New York studio, and his article is filled with Hopper’s own anecdotes and statements. Through his descriptions and skillful question- ing, O’Doherty was able to provide his readers with a glimpse into the inner sanctum of Hopper’s world. However, much of the research for this book has been obtained through the hard work and insightful analyses of Gail Levin, the foremost scholar on Hopper today and author of his cata- logue raisonné, published in 1995. Levin spent many years as the curator of the Hopper Collection at the Whitney Museum of American Art, where she had the opportunity to delve into the Hopper archives. Building on the work of Lloyd Goodrich, Levin is the first art historian to interpret Hopper’s art in terms of his relationship to French art, especially Degas, and the theater. Her thematic analyses and interpretations of spe- cific works have been immensely valuable in the compilation of this book. While she has written numerous books and articles on Hopper, this text

has drawn most heavily from Edward Hopper: The Art and the Artist. Robert Hobbs’s Edward Hopper also provides perceptive analyses of Hopper’s paintings. Hobbs’s book contains interesting observations concern- ing the motivations behind some of Hopper’s most famous works within the context of the cul- tural history of the period. Finally, an excellent repository of Hopper’s actual works and primary-source material is the


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