some styles of jujutsu vary sowidely fromothers that it can, at times, seem difficult to understand why they are all referred to as jujutsu. Despite the differences, however, most jujutsu schools emphasize respect for the teacher and a discipline that reflects the Japanese origins of the art. Modern jujutsu has evolved in an attempt to cater to modern (Western) urban needs. It must be borne in mind, however, that mod- ern self-defense requirements place a great strain on ancient systems of unarmed combat, the genesis of which lies in a period before the Industrial Revolution. An example of this is the introduction of guns to Japan during the feudal era when, for the first time, a conscripted peas- ant army was able to defeat an entire army of elite, traditionally trained warriors. Martial arts, such as judo, aikido , and jujutsu are often, along with other Japanese martial arts, collectively referred to as budo. The word “budo” is made up of two separate parts: bu, meaning “warrior,” and do, meaning “way.” Thus, budo means “warrior way.” THE SAMURAI The best-known type of warrior in ancient Japan was the samurai. The word “samurai” is often casually used to mean any Japanese war- rior, but it originally referred to a warrior who was a member of an elite class. The status of a samurai was rigidly defined and not easy to gain. Anyone could be a bushi (a “fighting man”), but the samurai class was granted only by birth, or by rendering absolutely exceptional combat service in battle. The word “samurai” dates from around the 10th cen- tury, although the Japanese military tradition itself actually goes back further than that. While jujutsu was not a samurai art, the samurai class was supported


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