W H A T I S J U J U T S U ?

insulted them.) The arts would have to remain martial in essence, but they would also be used to promote new, socially useful goals, such as discipline, respect for authority, and love of the nation, parents, and emperor. It was in this climate that Japanese jujutsu was born. TYPES OF JUJUTSU There are four basic types of jujutsu. The first type originated with the warrior caste of the Muromachi period (1337–1563), particularly with their tenshin shoden katori shinto ryu tradition. According to Ritsuki Otake, the head teacher of this tradition, this type of jujutsu used a type of grappling called yawara-ge (translated as “peacemak- ing”) that could be used, for the most part, without weapons. This statement does not seem wholly correct, however, as certain techniques within this tradition seem to have involved the use of swords. Indeed, it is alleged that Japan’s great swordsman, Miyamoto Musashi, studied yawara-ge. The second type of jujutsu was developed by unarmed laypeople and by experts in civil defense and arrest techniques. One of the funniest (but least noble) uses of this type of jujutsu occurred during the Edo period (1603–1867), when the nanushi (the agents of brothel keepers) used it to expel patrons who were drunk or refused to pay. The third type of jujutsu is the most modern. This type of jujutsu has been developed in countries outside of Japan, where it has been altered, reformed, or otherwise changed to fulfill the requirements of its prac- titioners. An example of this type is the Brazilian jujutsu of the Gracie brothers. Gracie jujutsu sprang to prominence during the 1990s due to its incredible efficiency and the success rate it achieved in various contests in


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