Advertising and Marketing Psychology Business Psychology Clinical Psychology Criminal Psychology Death and Dying Psychology P S Y C H O L O G Y I N A C T I O N

Family Psychology Media Psychology

Performance Psychology Rehabilitation Psychology

School Psychology Sports Psychology


By David Wilson Anne S. Walters, PhD, ABPP, Consultant Media Psychology


Mason Crest PO Box 221876, Hollywood, FL 33022 (866) MCP-BOOK (toll-free) • www.masoncrest.com

Copyright © 2023 by Mason Crest, an imprint of National Highlights, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America First printing 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Series ISBN: 978-1-4222-4702-0 Hardcover 978-1-4222-4708-2 ebook ISBN: 978-1-4222-7111-7 Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available on file at the Library of Congress.

Developed and Produced by Print Matters Productions, Inc Cover and Interior Design by Torque Advertising+Design

Publisher’s Note: Websites listed in this book were active at the time of publication. The publisher is not responsible for websites that have changed their address or discontinued operation since the date of publication. The publisher reviews and updates the websites each time the book is reprinted.

QR CODES AND LINKS TO THIRD-PARTY CONTENT You may gain access to certain third-party content (“Third-Party Sites”) by scanning and using the QR Codes that appear in this publication (the “QR Codes”). We do not operate or control in any respect any information, products, or services on such Third-Party Sites linked to by us via the QR Codes included in this publication, and we assume no responsibility for any materials you may access using the QR Codes. Your use of the QR Codes may be subject to terms, limitations, or restrictions set forth in the applicable terms of use or otherwise established by the owners of the Third-Party Sites. Our linking to such Third-Party Sites via the QR Codes does not imply an endorsement or sponsorship of such Third-Party Sites or the information, products, or services offered on or through the Third-Party Sites, nor does it imply an endorsement or sponsorship of this publication by the owners of such Third-Party Sites.


Introduction: What Is Psychology? .............................. 6 Chapter 1: Becoming a Media Psychologist . ............ 10 Chapter 2: History and Development of the Field .... 26 Chapter 3: Common and Unusual Issues .................. 44 Chapter 4: How Psychology Helps ............................ 62 Chapter 5: Takeaways for Everyday Life . ................. 76 Series Glossary of Key Terms ...................................... 90 Further Reading & Internet Resources ...................... 93 Index . ............................................................................. 94 Author’s Biography and Credits ................................. 96 KEY I CONS TO LOOK FOR : Words to Understand: These words with their easy-to-understand definitions will increase readers’ understanding of the text while building vocabulary skills. Sidebars: This boxed material within the main text allows readers to build knowledge, gain insights, explore possibilities, and broaden their perspectives by weaving together additional information to provide realistic and holistic perspectives. Educational Videos: Readers can view videos by scanning our QR codes, providing them with additional educational content to supplement the text. Text-Dependent Questions: These questions send the reader back to the text for more careful attention to the evidence presented there. Research Projects: Readers are pointed toward areas of further inquiry connected to each chapter. Suggestions are provided for projects that encourage deeper research and analysis. Series Glossary of Key Terms: This back-of-the-book glossary contains terminology used throughout this series. Words found here increase the reader’s ability to read and comprehend higher-level books and articles in this field.

What Is Psychology? When we look up the meaning of the word psychology , we learn that it comes from two Greek words—“psyche,” which means “mind,” and “logia,” which means “the study of.” Hence, psychology is “the study of the mind.” (Merriam-Webster.com) Essentially, psychology aims to study and better understand emotions, thoughts, and behaviors, with the goal of benefiting society. Those who choose to study psychology generally have a strong urge to help others, though the definition of “others” can vary across concentric circles of influence, from the individual to the family and then on to broader systems such as a school, neighborhood, or society. That urge to help and understand people and their behavior is perhaps the most basic motivator that leads an individual to want to pursue the study of psychology. Some describe psychology as a “hub science” to depict the way that it links to the social sciences, the natural sciences, medicine, and the humanities. In university settings, however, psychology is considered a social science. Social sciences deal with the study of human behavior in its social and cultural aspects. They include fields such as anthropology, sociology, political science, history, education, and economics. These fields are certainly diverse, and yet one can see the commonality: these disciplines all teach us more about how the individual and society interact and influence each other. Another important distinction is the one between psychology and psychiatry. Simply put, psychologists pursue


Media Psychology

graduate level degrees (master’s or doctorate) in psychology, whereas psychiatrists complete medical school prior to specializing in psychiatry. After medical school (and receiving an MD degree), there are three years of psychiatry training to become an adult psychiatrist. If they want to specialize further (such as in child and adolescent psychiatry or forensics), there is additional training in this specialty field for several years and then they must take a board examination to become certified in their specialty area. Psychiatrists can prescribe medication, and psychologists cannot (although in some rural or underserved areas this is an option for psychologists). Psychiatrists are also uniquely suited to understand biological or medical contributions to mental illness. On the other hand, some day-to-day practices of psychiatrists do not look that different from those of psychologists. What does studying psychology entail? There are so many options! Within psychology, there are multiple fields of study. Some of them you will learn about in these volumes, but it would take far too many volumes to cover all of them. If you’re interested in exploring more about psychology beyond this series, you might consider developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, and comparative psychology. Developmental psychology is the study of development throughout a person’s life, from infancy through old age. Some of the more famous developmental psychologists have been Jean Piaget, who identified stages for the development of cognition in children, and B. F. Skinner, who studied the process of learning and taught us about the concepts of operant and classical conditioning. Another field, cognitive psychology, studies human thought: one famous psychologist in this field is Noam Chomsky, who studied the development of language. Comparative psychologists study animal behavior, and in this area Konrad



Lorenz studied the process by which baby geese “imprint” on the first object they see after birth. If you Google Professor Lorenz, you may see pictures of goslings following him around the yard. Although there are many ways to cluster the various subfields of psychology, one common distinction is between clinical and nonclinical applications, sometimes also referred to as applied psychology vs. basic research . Clinical or applied psychology focuses on understanding and treating psychiatric disorders that challenge day-to-day functioning. Treatment is derived from an evidence base that assesses outcomes or the ways that a treatment is effective. Establishing an evidence base is an important aspect of the work of a psychologist. Some devote their careers to this work, which can overlap with nonclinical or research applications. Researchers use scientific methods to advance knowledge in the field in a variety of topics. These psychologists work in academic settings as well as industry and organizations. Why would you want to become a psychologist or even to study psychology? The field of psychology has countless applications to everyday life, and as such, it can be a jumping off point for many careers. The reader will learn about different psychology careers in these volumes. What’s more, as a major in college, psychology can be applied to a variety of careers outside of psychology, such as human resources, teaching, criminal justice, and many others. For those who have the option to take an elective psychology course in high school, it can be a wonderful opportunity to get a jump start on the weighty decision of what to major in and to see whether the subject matter interests you. In writing this introduction, I can give you a window into a personal choice. I am a child clinical psychologist and have devoted my career to helping children and their families. I work


Media Psychology

in an academic medical center, which means that although I do clinical work, I also teach and supervise psychology students at many phases of their career. In addition, I write for various venues and conduct applied research into the outcomes of the treatment we provide. I am also an administrator, and as such I attend to aspects of psychology as a “business”: hiring and training those who do the work in our setting and tracking our budget, to name a few examples. One of the best things about this career is that every day is different, and yet the common experience is of helping others. In producing this series, we hope that we can provide a window into the varied choices you can make with a degree in psychology. From professor to therapist, working with toddlers or the elderly, teaching business psychology or conducting family therapy, there is likely at least one application of the subject of psychology that will appeal to you. I hope the exploration is rewarding!

Anne S. Walters, PhD, ABPP Clinical Director Children’s Partial Hospital Program Clinical Professor Alpert Medical School of Brown University



The influence of the media can be seen all around us.


Beneficial: Very helpful or needed. Foundation: An essential part of a larger process. Pursuing: Working toward something. Trajectory: A pathway forward.


Becoming a Media Psychologist

The influence of the media can be seen all around us: not just on our televisions, computers, smartphones, and radios, but also in the words we say, the food we eat, the activities we pursue, and the way we look at the world. The word media comes from the Latin term for middle and can be applied to anything in the middle of two people: the phone apps they use to talk and text, the TV shows they both enjoy, and the news that they rely on to form their own opinions. While the term media is often used to specifically mean news, like newspapers or television programs, it can encompass any means of communication between different people. With such a large and complex industry, as such, the media psychologists who analyze these patterns of influence can have a variety of different backgrounds and interests. Given the great value of media to both businesses and customers, these psychologists may work for many types of businesses to achieve better communication, customer engagement, sales, or brand influence. These businesses may be large, spending


huge amounts of money on advertisements, or they may be small and lacking resources. In both cases, they benefit from media psychologists to provide the best message possible. Media psychologists can also study the influence of their science on other branches of psychology, such as industrial psychology, due to the influence of media on other industries, businesses, and mental health issues. Just as the media changes quickly, so too does media psychology, with its tasks and responsibilities growing each year. Unlike some other fields of psychology, it is not uncommon for a media psychologist to begin their career in an entirely different area, such as business or advertising, and then apply their experience toward a new profession as a psychologist. In fact, for some media psychologists, an established career with a track record of previous success may be more important than an educational background. However, all media psychologists do require formal university education, including all of the foundations of the science of psychology. First Steps: University Education All psychologists require education at a university or college, and media psychologists are no exception. A professional position as a media psychologist will require the completion of a four-year degree from an institution of higher education. A four-year degree in psychology provides the most direct pathway toward this career. At the undergraduate level, few universities offer a degree specifically in media psychology, instead offering a more general psychology degree. Despite the lack of a specific media psychology degree, most universities offer many classes on topics relevant to this profession. Typical media psychology courses that a student pursuing a psychology degree will study include topics in behavioral science, social psychology, mass communications, and statistics. Students


Media Psychology

A student pursuing a media psychology degree will study topics such as statistics.

Chapter 1: Becoming a Media Psychologist


Media psychology benefits many businesses from Hollywood movies to computer companies.

who receive the best grades are those who demonstrate understanding of how to study a subject, develop original findings, and communicate their ideas. Since this profession can be beneficial for many businesses across many different industries, from Hollywood movies to computer companies, it is possible for persons to pursue this career with a different undergraduate degree. A degree in media studies, communications, journalism, or film will help students to understand many of the most important topics in media psychology. However, these courses do not teach students the scientific methods and processes of psychology itself. As such, a student who wishes to pursue this career with another degree will need to take psychology courses in addition


Media Psychology

Made with FlippingBook - professional solution for displaying marketing and sales documents online