thin—so thin that some of the air from the atmosphere is always leaking slowly out into space. Ionosphere: While the ionosphere is not a separate, distinct layer like the others, it is a series of regions existing within and between the mesosphere and thermosphere. These areas contain large levels of electrically charged atoms and molecules that have been created by solar radiation. This section is constantly growing and shrinking, based on the amount of energy that it is absorbing from our sun. The ionosphere plays an important role when it comes to communication and navigation systems. This is the area of the


If you live in a city, you’ve probably experienced smog before. In simple terms, smog is a hazy substance in the air that reduces visibility. Smog, a combination of the words “smoke” and “fog,” is caused by polluted air. It forms when ozone gases mix with air pollution. Smog is dangerous to humans, animals, and plants. It can make it difficult to breathe, and it also contributes to the development of heart and lung diseases.


The New Weather: The Climate System

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