In World War I (1914–18), Germany fought many countries, including Britain, France, Russia,

The Weimar Republic The German empire was replaced by a republic . In 1919, a Social Democrat government was formed in the town of Weimar. But Berlin was still Germany’s capital and in 1920 expanded to form Greater Berlin. Inflation and unemployment grew quickly in Germany. Many people turned to the Nazi Part y for help. On January 30, 1933, its leader, Adolf Hitler, became German Chancellor. He ended the Weimar Republic and began a period of Nazi rule called the Third Reich. and the US. A total of about 10 million people died. Germany was defeated, and German leader Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated .

Former Army corporal Adolf Hitler became Germany’s Führer (leader). ⌂

World War II The Nazis persecuted Germany’s Jews and anyone who disagreed with Nazi policies. Then, on September 1, 1939, they invaded Poland and World War II began. Much of Berlin was later destroyed by the Allies in air raids , and up to 50,000 citizens were killed. In January 1945, Soviet troops invaded Germany. By April, they were in Berlin with other Allied forces. Hitler committed suicide, and Germany surrendered on May 8.

World War II bombing left about 100 million tons of rubble on Berlin’s streets. Many men were dead or in prison camps, so “rubble women” cleared the debris. ⌂


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