⌂ General de Gaulle (shown in the center of this picture, wearing a cap and uniform) led the celebrations to mark the end of Nazi rule in Paris in 1944.

War and the Commune France went to war with Prussia in 1870. Napoleon III fell from power and the Third Republic began. Prussia took over Paris in 1871. The French government signed a peace treaty, but many Parisians objected to this. They set up their own government, called the Commune, and took over the city. French troops violently defeated the Commune in May 1871.

The Fifth Republic De Gaulle became president again in 1958 and the Fifth Republic began. In 1968, Paris students protested against the education system and workers went on strike. De Gaulle had to resign because of this crisis. Since then, France has had many presidents. The current leader, President Francois Hollande, was elected in 2012 to serve a five-year term.

In 1989 Parisians celebrated the 200th anniversary of the French Revolution. People wore historical costumes, and this woman dressed as Marie Antoinette.

The World Wars World War I lasted from

1914 to 1918. German troops came close to Paris, but the French drove them back. In World War II , German Nazis took over the city from 1940 to 1944. After this a new government was set up by General Charles de Gaulle, who had led French resistance to German rule. He resigned in 1946 and the Fourth Republic was declared.



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