the Clinical Section becoming APA Division 12 (initially named the Division of Clinical and Abnormal Psychology). In 1935, the American Psychological Association (APA) defined clinical psychology as a branch of psychology that attempts to assess someone’s abilities and behavior by analyzing, measuring, and observing that person. It uses scientific methods to test people with psychological disorders and makes recommendations on how to help them. During World War II, the U.S. government asked clinical psychologists to treat returning soldiers suffering from “shell shock”—now called post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). The demand for psychologists led to the creation of many doctoral level training programs. By 1950, more than half of all PhDs in psychology were earned in clinical psychology. Today, clinical psychology is a hugely popular subfield that employs more people than any other area of psychology. The “Boulder” and the “Vail” Models Although at first, clinical psychologists focused on science and research, graduate programs soon began emphasizing psychotherapy. In PhD programs for clinical psychology, this is called the Boulder or scientist-practitioner model, because it was ratified at a 1949 conference in Boulder, Colorado. American psychologist David Shakow (1901–1981) developed this model, which guides graduate students to build a foundation consisting of research methods, field work, and scientific procedures to improve their future practice. Shakow is known for his research on schizophrenia and working to humanize people with this disorder. Before his time, schizophrenic patients were viewed as a danger and impossible to treat. Shakow’s dissertation, The Nature of Deterioration of Schizophrenia , is a classic in the field’s literature. In general, he stressed having a “therapeutic attitude,” meaning that a


Clinical Psychology

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