Core Training Endurance Training Fitness and Nutrition High-EnergyWorkouts High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Low Impact Training Mind and Body Fitness Strength and Bodyweight Training


Kimber Rozier

Mason Crest Miami

Mason Crest PO Box 221876 Hollywood, FL 33022 (866) MCP-BOOK (toll-free) www.masoncrest.com

Copyright © 2023 by Mason Crest, an imprint of National Highlights, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from the publisher. First printing 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN (hardback) 978-1-4222-4596-5

ISBN (series) 978-1-4222-4594-1 ISBN (ebook) 978-1-4222-7212-1 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Rozier, Kimber, author. Title: Endurance training / Kimber Rozier.

Description: Hollywood, FL : Mason Crest, 2023 | Series: Fitness and training | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2020005659 | ISBN 9781422245965 (hardback) | ISBN 9781422272121 (ebook) Subjects: LCSH: Physical fitness–Juvenile literature. | Aerobic exercises–Juvenile literature.

Classification: LCC GV481 .R70 2021 | DDC 613.7–dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020005659 Developed and Produced by National Highlights, Inc. Editor: Andrew Luke Production: Crafted Content, LLC

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Contents Chapter 1: Endurance Training: What it is and How it Helps ����������� 7 Chapter 2: Endurance Training vs. Strength Training ������������������������17 Chapter 3: Getting High: Training at Altitude ���������������������������������������27 Chapter 4: The Science of Endurance Training ��������������������������������������39 Chapter 5: Sport-Specific Endurance Training ��������������������������������������53 Chapter 6: Common Injuries and How to Prevent Them ������������������67 Chapter 7: Exercises for Endurance Athletes ����������������������������������������79 Series Glossary of Key Terms ���������������������������������������������������������������������92 Further Reading & Internet Resources �����������������������������������������������������93 Index �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������94 Author Biography, Photo Credits & Educational Video Links �������� 96

Key Icons to Look For

WORDS TO UNDERSTAND: These words, with their easy-to-understand definitions, will increase readers’ understanding of the text while building vocabulary skills. SIDEBARS: This boxed material within the main text allows readers to build knowledge, gain insights, explore possibilities, and broaden their perspectives by weaving together additional information to provide realistic and holistic perspectives. EDUCATIONAL VIDEOS: Readers can view videos by scanning our QR codes, providing themwith additional educational content to supplement the text.

TEXT-DEPENDENT QUESTIONS: These questions send the reader back to the text for more careful attention to the evidence presented there.

RESEARCHPROJECTS: Readers are pointed toward areas of further inquiry connected to each chapter. Suggestions are provided for projects that encourage deeper research and analysis. SERIES GLOSSARY OF KEY TERMS: This back-of-the-book glossary contains terminology used throughout this series. Words found here increase the reader’s ability to read and comprehend higher-level books and articles in this field.

WORDS TO UNDERSTAND aerobic— of or relating to an activity that increases the body’s demand for oxygen, thereby resulting in marked temporary increase in respiration and heart rate cardiovascular endurance— the ability of the heart, lungs, and circulatory system to supply oxygen to working muscles during a prolonged period of exercise muscular endurance— the ability of muscle fibers to continuously produce force without fatigue phosphocreatine— a molecule found in muscle tissue that provides energy for short, intense muscular contraction VO2 max — a measure of aerobic fitness that represents the intensity at which the body maximizes its ability to use oxygen as fuel


Endurance Training

CHAPTER 1 Endurance Training:

What it is and How it Helps

Endurance training refers to prolonged, sustained exercise that’s almost entirely aerobic . By relying on oxygen use for energy, low- tomedium intensity aerobic exercise can be kept up for long periods—hence the name “endurance.” There isn’t an exact upper limit on how long humans can endure exercise. Eventually, fatigue will set in, depending on intensity, fitness level, access to fuel, andwillpower. To be considered endurance exercise, however, there exists a logical lower limit. While you can stay aerobic by walking for 10 seconds, that wouldn’t requiremuch ability to endure (for most). Instead, you’d need towalk for much longer to reach a certain level of fatigue. At maximal intensity, it only takes about 90 seconds to twominutes for exercise to become primarily aerobic. Therefore, some consider sprinting an 800-meter(m) race in track as an endurance exercise. It’s just a test of muscular endurancemore than cardiovascular. THE IMPORTANCEOF ENDURANCE TRAINING Humans developed a high capacity for endurance as an evolutionary necessity. Way back before iPhones, cars, and even agriculture, nomadic lifestyle required the ability towalk hundreds of miles. After exhausting the resources in one location, wemoved on to another in a constant search for food and survival. Since we lacked the speed and power of animals, humans had to adapt. We gained the ability to run huge distances to tire out prey. Theymay have been faster, quicker, andmore powerful, but we would eventually catch up. Slow and steady really


Endurance Training: What it is and How it Helps

Distance running events are designed to test endurance, so building endurance must be a key component of any successful training program.


Endurance Training

didwin the race. Add in our use of tools, and you get a recipe for a satisfyingmeal. While it wasn’t labeled endurance training, the ability to overcome fatigue and keep running became a very real life-or-death situation. Nowadays, we can rely on the comforts of modern society. So, why dowe need endurance training? Well, if youwant to be good at any endurance sport, youmust train for it. Swimming, running, cycling, rowing, and other athletic events are designed to test your endurance. Moreover, one’s aerobic fitness andmuscular endurance are correlatedwith better health, reduced stress, lower injury risk, and other benefits. TYPES OF ENDURANCE Endurance takes many forms— from themental ability to push through fatigue to the body’s structural resistance against stress. When people refer to endurance training, however, they’remost likely referencing either cardiovascular or muscular endurance .

IS THERE A LIMIT TO HUMAN ENDURANCE? Even the most elite athletes have a limit. According to recent research fromDuke University, that limit peaks at sustaining about 2.5 times the resting metabolic rate, or the amount of energy the body uses at rest. Past that, researchers say, the human digestive system can’t turn over food quickly enough to refuel. Now, these findings come from a study of participants in the Race Across America—a >3,000-mile trek across the country spanning 140 days. Experts suggest that a marathon and the Tour de France, in contrast, require energy production at 15 and 4 times the resting metabolic rate, respectively. A top-speed sprint warrants even higher numbers. When looking at endurance, higher energy production means less time until fatigue. Eventually, the body will give out.


Endurance Training: What it is and How it Helps

Running stairs is a tough test of cardiovascular endurance.

Cardiovascular As the name suggests, cardiovascular endurance refers to the fitness of the heart. Specifically, it involves the ability of the heart, lungs, and circulatory system to supply oxygen toworkingmuscles during exercise. The harder the activity, the harder these organs work to keep upwith the increased demands. At some point, you reach a limit, which can be increased through smart, safe, and progressive cardiovascular endurance training. Typically, that means gradually increasing the intensity of activity while keeping the time the same time or extending the time or distance at the same intensity. Muscular Muscular endurance, on the other hand, involves the ability of muscle fibers to continuously produce force without fatigue. The simplest examples include howmany push-ups or sit-ups you can do in a row without stopping. At some point, your nerves will tire out, or your


Endurance Training

muscle fibers will no longer be able to contract. Under metabolic fatigue, metabolites such as lactic acid build up and interfere with the calcium ions necessary for contraction. Endurance training teaches your nervous system to send out strong, sustained signals while helping to clear out metabolites. BENEFITS OF ENDURANCE TRAINING Whether you’re doing long runs, distance swimming, Ironman races, or training for the Tour de France, increasing your endurance has its advantages. Even if you’re not a competitive athlete, endurance training can improve

Regular aerobic exercise has health benefits such as lowering blood pressure.

your overall well-being. ImprovedHeart Health

As endurance training is primarily an aerobic activity, you’re directly working out your cardiacmuscle— the heart. Asking your heart to deliver oxygen to your extremities for prolonged periods gradually makes it stronger, alleviating some of the stressors at rest.


Endurance Training: What it is and How it Helps

Watch this video on the benefits of endurance training.

Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to lower blood pressure and increase helpful high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is able to clear out of the body through the liver, thereby protecting against heart disease. Think of cholesterol like something stuck in the bottom of a straw. If you try to drink anything with it, you have to try hard. The same applies to your heart when the arteries are obstructed. Therefore, regular endurance training can both ease up your heart’s workload and make each beat more effective. Reduced Stress Research confirms that aerobic activity reduces reoccurring emotional stress by balancing out your hormones. According to Harvard Health , getting in shape can alter your body on a physical level to lift your spirits. Rhythmic exercises, such as running, cycling, or training on the elliptical, offer a sort of physical meditation, lulling us into a present focused state. Of course, this won’t happen immediately after you start doing these exercises. Early on, building endurance can be hard work. However, if you can push through, your body will adapt and start to respond accordingly. For example, childrenwho demonstrate high levels of stress, anxiety, or depression can rely on aerobic training to alleviate symptoms. According to the Journal of Psychosomatic Research , 25–30minutes of aerobic exercise twice weekly for 10 weeks resulted in significantly less stress,


Endurance Training

especially as exercise intensity increased. This suggests that pushing yourself to endure long, high-intensity aerobic training weakens the relationship between stress and ongoingmental health issues. Greater Recovery Endurance training can also help you recover fromweightlifting, speed training, and team sports activities. Studies show a strong relationship between aerobic fitness and the immediate oxidative response to high-intensity interval exercise. With a better aerobic capacity also comes better replenishment of phosphocreatine , the fuel that allows us to reach the highest level of exercise under six seconds. Finally, some research reports show that higher aerobic fitness corresponds tomore efficient lactate removal. Lactate accumulation has a lot to dowith localizedmuscular endurance. Therefore, themore endurance training you do, the longer your muscles will be able to contract at a specific intensity. This research suggests that even power athletes, such as sprinters, basketball players, and weightlifters, can benefit fromendurance training.

Endurance training helps the body recover faster from activities such as weightlifting.


Endurance Training: What it is and How it Helps

Reduced Injury Risk According to data reported in the Orthopedic Journal of Sports Medicine , athletes with an in-season injury or illness had lower VO2 max than their non-injured counterparts. As VO2 max is one of themost reliablemeasures of aerobic fitness and endurance, these findings indicate that greater endurance correlates with reduced injury risk. It is suggested that athletes train to improve endurance in the off-season, even if their main sport doesn’t necessarily require it. We know endurance is important for athletes, but what about non-athletes? When professionals evaluated the health and injury of employees in the fire service, they found that their relative aerobic fitness coordinated with injury risk. Those in the lower categories of VO2 max weremore than twice as likely to get hurt compared to fitter employees. The same result was found in army trainees. Using the army fitness test (push-ups, sit ups, and running) rather than flat-out VO2 max , researchers were able to show that bothmen andwomenwith low endurance levels aremore likely to be injured. Increased Athletic Performance Finally, we have the obvious benefit of endurance training—high performance in endurance sports. Research shows that gradually increasing the length of sustained intensity in training can improve VO2 max . While this measure confirms greater aerobic fitness, it doesn’t always mean you’ll win a race. Fitter people lose races all the time to those who havemore determination and better preparation, among other factors. So, what can endurance athletes do? Work on their craft! Simply training to reflect the actual competitive environment canmimic the stressors you’ll feel on race day. Alsomimicking pre-competition rituals, such as your pre-racemeal, sleep schedule, andmindset, can be helpful.


Endurance Training

Endurance athletes should train in conditions that best mimic those found in competition whenever possible.

TEXT-DEPENDENT QUESTIONS 1. What is the relationship between aerobic exercise and lactate removal? 2. Explain the difference between cardiovascular endurance and muscular endurance. 3. How can the physical stress of endurance exercise reduce negative psychological stress? RESEARCHPROJECT In this chapter, we discussed the importance of endurance in human evolution. Research the habits of both our ancestral andmodern hunter/gatherer tribes. Howdo they use endurance to survive? How dowe knowabout their fitness levels? Cite at least two different ways endurance plays a critical role in their daily lives.


Endurance Training: What it is and How it Helps

WORDS TO UNDERSTAND bradycardia— a slower than normal heart rate, medically defined as less than 60 beats per minute motor units— a motor neuron together with the muscle fibers on which it acts myocardium— the muscle of the heart the SAID principle— a scientific principle stating that the body will adapt specifically to whatever demands it has to overcome


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