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HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING (HIIT) Mason Crest Philadelphia • Miami Mason Crest

Cole Johnson

Mason Crest Miami

Mason Crest PO Box 221876 Hollywood, FL 33022 (866) MCP-BOOK (toll-free) www.masoncrest.com

Copyright © 202 3 by Mason Crest, an imprint of National Highlights, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from the publisher. First printing 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN (hardback) 978-1-4222-4599-6

ISBN (series) 978-1-4222-4594-1 ISBN (ebook) 978-1-4222-7215-2 Cataloging-in-Publication Data on file with the Library of Congress Developed and Produced by National Highlights, Inc. Editor: Andrew Luke Production: Crafted Content, LLC

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Contents Chapter 1: What is High-Intensity Interval Training? ��������������������������� 7 Chapter 2: HIIT and the Body ����������������������������������������������������������������������� 21 Chapter 3: HIIT Compared to Other Types of Training ������������������������� 37 Chapter 4: HIIT and Improving Athletic Performance �������������������������� 49 Chapter 5: HIIT and Training for Popular Sports ����������������������������������� 59 Chapter 6: Different Variations of HIIT Principles ��������������������������������� 71 Chapter 7: Examples of Effective HIIT Routines ������������������������������������ 81 Series Glossary of Key Terms ����������������������������������������������������������������������� 92 Further Reading & Internet Resources ������������������������������������������������������� 93 Index ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 94 Author Biography, Photo Credits & Educational Video Links ������������ 96

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WORDS TO UNDERSTAND: These words, with their easy-to-understand definitions, will increase readers’ understanding of the text while building vocabulary skills. SIDEBARS: This boxed material within the main text allows readers to build knowledge, gain insights, explore possibilities, and broaden their perspectives by weaving together additional information to provide realistic and holistic perspectives. EDUCATIONAL VIDEOS: Readers can view videos by scanning our QR codes, providing themwith additional educational content to supplement the text.

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RESEARCHPROJECTS: Readers are pointed toward areas of further inquiry connected to each chapter. Suggestions are provided for projects that encourage deeper research and analysis. SERIES GLOSSARY OF KEY TERMS: This back-of-the-book glossary contains terminology used throughout this series. Words found here increase the reader’s ability to read and comprehend higher-level books and articles in this field.

WORDS TO UNDERSTAND anaerobic— a process that does not use oxygen

homeostasis— a self-regulating process by which an organism tends to maintain stability while adjusting conditions that are optimal for survival lactic acid— an organic acid produced in the muscles during strenuous exercise


High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)

CHAPTER 1 What is High-Intensity

Interval Training? To perform at your best at any sport or athletic event you may encounter, being able to compete hard for an extended period of time is a must. Any athlete can come out of the gate strong, performing well before fatigue sets in. One trait that sets the greatest competitors apart from the pack is the ability to bring the same intensity over and over again until the final whistle. While there are certainly benefits to dividing your workouts into periods of weight training with extended rest breaks and lightweight, rapid movements, both of these tend to occur simultaneously on the field of play. In this chapter, we will define high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and how this technique translates directly to competition. DEFINING HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING If you are the type of personwho likes to stay informed on the latest fitness trends andworkout strategies, HIIT is a termyou have probably heard before. Unfortunately, most available information provides a lot of different exercise routines using this technique without actually defining what it is in the first place! To keep things simple, high-intensity interval training (or HIIT) is a form of exercise inwhich brief periods of strenuous, anaerobic exercise are alternatedwith less-intense recovery time.


What is High-Intensity Interval Training?

While there are lots of ways to actually use this technique when it comes toworking out, the definition above is the foundation for any variation of HIIT. Due to the challenging nature of the technique, HIIT workouts usually last nomore than 30minutes. This type of training significantly accelerates the buildup of lactic acid inmuscle tissue; therefore, any training session longer than 30minutes has the ability to become counterproductive. Any strenuous workout, HIIT examples included, causes a drastic increase in your body’s oxygen and nutrient requirements. In order to maintain homeostasis , your body actually alters its metabolism to use different energy sources. Normally, carbohydrates are the body’s go-to source for energy. During activities such as HIIT, the body will start to burn fat for energy tomeet its fuel requirements.

HIIT workouts are typically no more than 30 minutes because the intensity means it takes less time for them to be effective.


High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)

While there are lots of ways to actually use this technique when it comes toworking out, the definition above is the foundation for any variation of HIIT. WHYGO ANAEROBIC? Anaerobic training such as HIIT is commonly used in athletic training for a number of reasons. Anaerobic exercise involves maintaining the heart rate at 80–90 percent of maximal levels. Besides themetabolic shift previously mentioned, the body, sensing it is burning oxygen at a greater level than its supply, begins to fuel the muscular systemusing glycogen. This fuel source is actually stored in themuscles, primed and ready to go for these types of situations. As it breaks down, glycogen results in a buildup of lactic acid in skeletal muscle. This is actually what you are feeling as you notice the burning sensation in your muscles during exercise. Once a certain level of lactic acid is present inmuscle tissue, it can no longer performat optimum levels.

THE EVER ADAPTIVE HUMAN BODY Our bodies are absolutely

incredible at changing to meet the demands of our external environment. If exposed to a stimulus consistently, whatever this factor may be, there is a good chance that your body will call an audible to adjust for this new “normal.” This is one of the neatest things about working out and preparing for sports. Each time you subject your body to the physical challenges required in your sport, whether this occurs in preparation or in a game situation, your body gets the memo. Athletics and fitness are some of the most obvious examples of how adaptable and dynamic we are as human beings.

To becomemore able to continuously performat a high level in competition, the body needs the ability tomore efficiently flush lactic acid frommuscle tissue. When an athlete consistently trains using anaerobicmethods like HIIT, they can actually reach the point where their bodies get rid of lactic


What is High-Intensity Interval Training?

acid even faster than it accumulates! Furthermore, anaerobic training also allows the body to store glycogen more efficiently. Withmore glycogen available, themuscular system is able to function effectively even longer under these conditions. Basically, structuring your training in away that enhances these responses affords you the ability to keep grinding away during crunch time, when your competitionmay be exhausted. Since HIIT has become such a mainstream staple in the exercise and training community, there are plenty of existing workouts available that are well written and more than capable of challenging you. Even better, since the actual foundation of this technique is pretty straightforward, you can easily

HIIT BENEFIT #1 Even during busy time periods when you find it hard to get an effectiveworkout in, HIIT has your back. Due to the fact that youwill be really pushing yourself for most of the workout, the total time needed to get the job done decreases. At just 30minutes, HIIT is an easy item to check off of even the busiest “to-do” list, making it a really great tool to remain consistent with your fitness routine!

HIIT can take many forms. The key is to strive for consistency fromworkout to workout.


High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)

come upwith your own HIIT workouts to include specific exercises and movements. Variety is a great way to stay engaged and excited about your workouts. This is an extremely important factor to consider, given that the key to success in anything you strive for is consistency. If you look forward to your next workout and regularly alter themovements involved, you aremuchmore likely to remain consistent in general. POPULARUSES OFHIIT A common theme in new genres of workout routines or training regimens is that they are used or recommended by an individual, such as a professional athlete or celebrity. Since these types of people have such a large following, their fans oftenwant tomimic what this icon is doing in the hope that theymight look or perform like that person does. Another common trait of most popular training techniques is that they appeal to a specific group of people. Workouts that target ultra-busy professionals, stay-at-homemothers, and other niche groups tend to gain a lot of popularity within these groups. People like to be able to relate to anything they are a part of, and the type of exercise they choose to stick with is no different.

Check out this video for an example of how time-efficient your workouts can become with HIIT.


What is High-Intensity Interval Training?

During the 2020 coronavirus outbreak, NBA star LeBron James shared some of his workout routine while in self-isolation.


InMarch 2020, the NBA suspended its 2019-20 season due to the global coronavirus pandemic. NBA stars such as Lebron James were then facedwith the problemof how tomaintain their fitness levels while stuck at home. James has a fully equipped home gym, but not all of his teammates, for example, had the same luxury. In fact, many of them did not have workout equipment at all as they usually always had access to the top-flight Lakers’ facility. The facility was closed during the outbreak to promote social distancing. Several players did not even have basketballs at home. The Lakers’ strength and conditioning staff jumped in to help the players. They sent workout routines and position drills by email and text, and even shipped dumbbells, weighted bands and other equipment as needed (including basketballs).


High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)

NBA star LeBron James uses a Versa Climber as part of a HIIT routine.


What is High-Intensity Interval Training?

LEBRONJAMES NBAmegastar LeBron James is an athlete who has maintained an incredible level of performance across a career that has spanned nearly two decades. When discussing the greatest basketball player of all time, theman is always in the conversation. When you consider that, at the NBA level, every athlete on the court has been giftedwith incredible natural talent; this kind of performance undoubtedly results froma fanatical work ethic. Part of James’ rigorous training routine, according to his longtime trainer, Mike Mancias, looks a lot like HIIT. Mancias, who has workedwith LeBron James for more than 16 years, has described a staple part of his workout that takes place on a piece of equipment known as the Versa Climber. Using this device, which basically functions as a rapid-paced stair climber, James will perform intense bursts of speed for around 30 seconds. In-between these bursts, a 10- to 20-second recovery period is allowed. This cycle is then repeated for a set number of rounds. NFL SUPERSTARS Another great example of HIIT being used by athletes to prepare for competition comes froman interviewwith Todd Durkin, a highly regarded trainer who has workedwith various football stars including DrewBrees, Darren Sproles, and GeraldMcCoy. Durkindescribedhow, using an innovativepieceof cardioequipment inhis gym, his clients performintensebursts of speed for 5–10 seconds. After this short but grueling interval, they are allowed to rest for a coupleofminutes before repeating the cycle for up tofive times. Durkin likes toworkwith multipleplayers simultaneously, allowing the inherent competitivenature crucial for aprofessional athlete tomakehis clients pushevenharder. Although themethod Durkin describes corroborates with the principles of HIIT that we discussed earlier, his workout design is evenmore specific when it comes to simulating a football game. The 5–10-second


High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)

New Orleans quarterback Drew Brees is one of several NFL stars that Todd Durkin has trained.


What is High-Intensity Interval Training?

bursts during training are not a random interval he pulled out of thin air. The average football play lasts between 5 and 7 seconds; therefore, his clients are required to go all out for an interval that simulates the same time period they are expected to performduring a game. BRITNEY SPEARS If you are going to achieve the level of fame and success that pop superstar Britney Spears has reached during her career, there are undoubtedly somemust-haves beyond singing. Two of these

Turn-of-the-century pop icon Britney Spears is still putting on concerts complete with high energy dance routines in her late thirties, thanks in part to her HIIT workouts on the spin bike.


High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)

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