Women in Anthropology

Women in Chemistry

Women in Engineering

Women in Environmental Sciences

Women in Information Technology

Women in Medicine

Women in Physics

Women in Space Exploration

Women Inventors



By Andrew Morkes and Shaina Indovino

Mason Crest Philadelphia • Miami

PO Box 221876, Hollywood, FL 33022 (866) MCP-BOOK (toll-free) • www.masoncrest.com

Copyright © 2022 by Mason Crest, an imprint of National Highlights, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America First printing 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Series ISBN: 978-1-4222-4499-9 Hardcover ISBN: 978-1-4222-4500-2 ebook ISBN: 978-1-4222-7304-3 Cataloging-in-Publication Data on file with the Library of Congress Developed and Produced by National Highlights, Inc. Production: Andy Morkes Cover and Interior Design: Tim Palin Layout: Priceless Digital Media Publisher’s Note: Websites listed in this book were active at the time of publication. The publisher is not responsible for websites that have changed their address or discontinued operation since the date of publication. The publisher reviews and updates the websites each time the book is reprinted.

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Chapter 1: Careers in Anthropology Jane Goodall: Friend of the Chimpanzees Chapter 2: Terms of the Trade Zora Neale Hurston: Author and Anthropologist

12 27 32 46 57 60 78 85 90 91 92 95 96 41 73

Chapter 3: Educational Training and Salaries

Kathy Reichs: The Real-Life “Bones”

Chapter 4: Exploring Careers in Anthropology

Margaret Mead: Understanding the South Pacific

Chapter 5: The Future of Anthropology and Careers

Dian Fossey: Living with Gorillas

Further Reading and Internet Resources

Educational Video Links


Photo Credits

Author and Consultant Biographies

Key Icons to Look For

WORDS TO UNDERSTAND: These words, with their easy-to-understand definitions, will increase readers’ understanding of the text while building vocabulary skills. SIDEBARS: This boxed material within the main text allows readers to build knowledge, gain insights, explore possibilities, and broaden their perspectives by weaving together additional information to provide realistic and holistic perspectives. EDUCATIONAL VIDEOS: Readers can view videos by scanning our QR codes, providing them with additional educational content to supplement the text. TEXT-DEPENDENT QUESTIONS: These questions send the reader back to the text for more careful attention to the evidence presented there. RESEARCH PROJECTS: Readers are pointed toward areas of further inquiry connected to each chapter. Suggestions are provided for projects that encourage deeper research and analysis.


Have you wondered how the natural world works? Are you curious how science could help sick people get better? Do you want to learn more about our planet and universe? Are you excited to use technology to learn and share ideas? Do you want to build something new? Scientists, engineers, and doctors are among the many types of people who think deeply about science and nature, who often have new ideas on how to improve life in our world. An archaeologist takes notes after

excavating a test pit to look for artifacts at the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site.


Anthropologists try to learn as much as they can about other cultures through their daily life and festivals (such as the

one in Indonesia pictured here).

We live in a remarkable time in human history. The level of understanding and rate of progress in science and technology have never been greater. Major advances in these areas include the following: • Computer scientists and engineers are building mobile and internet technology to help people access and share information at incredible speeds.



A teen participates in an archaeology field school.


• Biologists and chemists are creating medicines that can target and get rid of harmful cancer cells in the body. • Engineers are guiding robots on Mars to explore the history of water on that planet. • Physicists are using math and experiments to estimate the age of the universe to be greater than 13 billion years. • Scientists and engineers are building hybrid cars that can be better for our environment. Scientists are interested in discovering and understanding key principles in nature, including biological, chemical, mathematical, and physical aspects of our world. They observe, measure, and experiment in a systematic way in order to test and improve their understanding. Engineers focus on applying scientific knowledge and math to find creative solutions for technical problems and to develop real products for people to use. There are many types of engineering, including computer, electrical, mechanical, civil, chemical, and biomedical engineering. Some people have also found that studying science or engineering can help them succeed in other professions such as law, business, and medicine. Both women and men can be successful in science and engineering. This series provides information on education and careers in a variety of science fields. It also highlights women leaders who have made significant contributions across many scientific fields, including chemistry, medicine, anthropology, engineering, and physics. Historically, women have faced barriers to training and building careers in science, which makes some of these stories even more amazing. While not all barriers have been overcome, our society has made tremendous progress in educating and advancing women in science. Today, there are schools, organizations, and resources that help women to pursue careers as scientists or engineers at the highest levels of achievement and leadership. The goals of this series are to help you with the following: 1. Learn about women scientists, engineers, doctors, and inventors who have made a major impact in science and our society



2. Understand different types of science and engineering and key terms in these fields 3. Learn more about the variety of educational paths one can pursue to enter these careers

4. Explore science and math in school and real life 5. Learn about the employment outlook in science and engineering specialties

You can do a lot of things to learn more about science, math, and engineering. Explore topics in books or online, take a class at school, go to science camp, or do experiments at home. More important, talk to a real scientist, doctor, or engineer! Call or email your local college to find students and professors. They would love to meet with you. Ask your doctors about their education and training. Or you can check out these helpful resources: • NOVA has very cool videos about science, including profiles on real-life women scientists and engineers: www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova. • National Geographic has excellent photos and stories to inspire people to care about the planet: www.nationalgeographic.com/science. Here are examples of online courses for students, of which many are free: 1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) OpenCourseWare for high school: https://ocw.mit.edu/high-school 2. Khan Academy tutorials and courses: www.khanacademy.org 3. Stanford University Online High School: https://onlinehighschool.stanford.edu Other skills will become important as you get older. Build strong communication skills by asking questions and sharing your ideas in class. Ask for advice or help when needed from your teachers, mentors, tutors, or classmates. Be curious and resilient: Learn from your successes and mistakes. The best scientists and engineers do.



Learning science and math is one of the most important things that you can do in school. Knowledge and experience in these areas will teach you how to think and how the world works, and they can provide you with many adventures and paths in life. I hope you will explore science, engineering, and medicine—you could make a difference in this world. Ann Lee-Karlon, PhD Past-President, Association for Women in Science

A folk festival in Sweden.




Words to Understand artifacts: objects made by human beings, usually of historical or cultural interest dedication: a commitment to something

human resources department: a department in a company or other organization that is responsible for hiring new employees, and managing and training current ones mentor: a person who guides and gives advice to a less experienced person



Where do humans come from? How has human society changed over time? Why are cultures from around the world so different from your own? If you ever find yourself asking these questions, you might be interested in becoming an anthropologist. An anthropologist is a person who studies anthropology, which means the “science of humanity.” It’s a very broad field, and there are many different types of anthropologists. Some anthropologists examine the human body and how it has evolved over time. Other anthropologists are more interested in culture, or the artifacts left behind by societies of the past. Some anthropologists study modern cultures. Being an anthropologist is a rewarding career, but becoming one is not easy. Most anthropologists spend a very long time in school. By the time an anthropologist finishes school, they may already be considered an expert in their field! However, a good anthropologist is always looking to learn more. When the field of anthropology first began, most anthropologists were men. At the time, it was easier for a man to receive the education needed to become a scientist. Unlike men, very few women went to college. This made scientists who were women extremely rare. Even if a woman did manage to get the education she needed, she faced even more challenges. People often didn’t accept that she was as intelligent as the men in her field. They didn’t think she could do as good a job as a man could. Sometimes they even felt she was immoral for not staying in the home, taking care of her family. The first female anthropologists were forced to prove their capabilities in order to be taken seriously. These brave women paved the road for the female anthropologists of the future. They proved that women could be just as successful in anthropology as men. Fortunately, it is now much easier for women to become anthropologists. Today, women are much more accepted within the scientific



community. In fact, they’re encouraged to pursue anthropology because women bring a unique perspective to the field.


There are many areas of focus in anthropology, but most anthropologists agree that there are four main specialties.

Cultural anthropologists study patterns of learned behavior in different cultures. They use a research method called ethnography that incorporates fieldwork (going to the place where the group lives) and participant observation to obtain a better understanding of that culture and

Some biological

anthropologists, who are known as primatologists, study primates.

to compare and contrast it with other cultures. Cultural anthropologists are also known as social anthropologists . Biological anthropologists study how humans have evolved (and continue to evolve)

from other primates (e.g., lemurs, monkeys, apes) and their living and fossil relatives. They also study how humans have adapted to different environments. Some biological

anthropologists, who are known as primatologists , study primates, who are considered the closest living relatives of humans. By studying primates, we can learn a lot about human evolution. Jane Goodall is a


famous primatologist who you will learn about later in this chapter. Biological anthropologists are also known as physical anthropologists . Linguistic anthropologists study how languages are used for cultural, social, and daily purposes. They gather information via fieldwork, participant observation, and audiovisual/video recordings. Some linguistic anthropologists work to save and DID YOU KNOW? It’s estimated that there are at least 5,000 languages in the world, down from 6,703 separate languages in 1996, according to the Linguistic Society of America. Experts predict that up to 80 percent of current languages may be extinct by the end of the century if efforts aren’t intensified to save them.

document languages that are in danger of extinction. For example, anthropologists on the National Geographic Enduring Voices Project documented the Chipaya language of Bolivia, the Yshyr Chamacoco language of Paraguay, and the Matukar Panau language of Papua New Guinea, along with many others that are at risk of dying out. Archaeologists seek to learn about past

human cultures by studying artifacts such as pottery, textiles, stone tools, and the remains of structures; human, plant, and animal remains; and written and oral stories about past cultures. They conduct archaeological digs in which they search for artifacts and other evidence of past

An archaeologist

at Mount Rainier National Park sifts dirt to search for arrowheads and other artifacts.

cultures, document their findings using scientific methods, carefully remove the


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