Core Training Endurance Training Fitness and Nutrition High-EnergyWorkouts High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Low Impact Training Mind and Body Fitness Strength and Bodyweight Training


Jay Lowder

Mason Crest Miami

Mason Crest 450 Parkway Drive, Suite D Broomall, Pennsylvania 19008 (866) MCP-BOOK (toll-free) www.masoncrest.com PO Box 221876 H llywood, FL 33022

Copyright © 2021 by Mason Crest, an imprint of National Highlights, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from the publisher. First printing 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN (hardback) 978-1-4222-4600-9 3

ISBN (series) 978-1-4222-4594-1 ISBN (ebook) 978-1-4222-7216-9

Developed and Produced by National Highlights, Inc. Editor: Andrew Luke Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Lowder, Jay, author. Title: Low impact training / Jay Lowder. Description: Hollywood, FL : Mason Crest, [2023] | Series: Fitness and training | Includes bibliographical references and index. 9781422272169 (ebook) Subjects: LCSH: Low-impact aerobic exercise—Juvenile literature. E

LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2021056127 Developed and Produced by National Highlights, Inc. Editor: Andrew Luke

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Contents Chapter 1: What is Low-Impact Training? ������������������������������������������������ 7 Chapter 2: Benefits of Low-Impact Training �����������������������������������������17 Chapter 3: Finding a Low-Impact Training Program ��������������������������29 Chapter 4: Heart Rate and Low-Impact Training ���������������������������������41 Chapter 5: Zones, HIIT, and Fitness Trackers ����������������������������������������53 Chapter 6: Low-Impact Injuries �����������������������������������������������������������������65 Chapter 7: Swimming, Climbing, and Cycling: Low-Impact Standards ������������������������������������������������������������79 Series Glossary of Key Terms ���������������������������������������������������������������������92 Further Reading & Internet Resources �����������������������������������������������������93 Index �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������94 Author Biography, Photo Credits & Educational Video Links �������� 96

Key Icons to Look For

WORDS TO UNDERSTAND: These words, with their easy-to-understand definitions, will increase readers’ understanding of the text while building vocabulary skills. SIDEBARS: This boxed material within the main text allows readers to build knowledge, gain insights, explore possibilities, and broaden their perspectives by weaving together additional information to provide realistic and holistic perspectives. EDUCATIONAL VIDEOS: Readers can view videos by scanning our QR codes, providing themwith additional educational content to supplement the text.

TEXT-DEPENDENT QUESTIONS: These questions send the reader back to the text for more careful attention to the evidence presented there.

RESEARCHPROJECTS: Readers are pointed toward areas of further inquiry connected to each chapter. Suggestions are provided for projects that encourage deeper research and analysis. SERIES GLOSSARY OF KEY TERMS: This back-of-the-book glossary contains terminology used throughout this series. Words found here increase the reader’s ability to read and comprehend higher-level books and articles in this field.

WORDS TO UNDERSTAND ball-and-socket joint— a joint where the round end of a bone (the ball) fits into the cavity (the socket) of another bone cartilaginous joint— a partially moveable joint linked by cartilage hinge joint— a joint between bones (as at the elbow) that permits motion in only one plane pivot joint— a joint that enables you to rotate or twist around a single axis synovial joint— relating to or denoting a type of joint that is surrounded by a thick flexible membrane forming a sac into which is secreted a viscous fluid that lubricates the joint


CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS LOW-IMPACT TRAINING? WHAT IS LOW-IMPACT TRAINING? If you don’t like to exercise or find it intimidating, low-impact training offers so much variety to choose from that you are bound to find a workout you like. On the other hand, if you’re a serious athlete and think low-impact training is too easy or won’t improve your performance, think again. Its name implies that it involves a non-contact sport or exercise, but that’s not the case. Low-impact training is any activity or sport that is easy (low-impact) on your joints. For example, swimming and cycling are low-impact activities. In swimming, thewater supports the body and eliminates joint stress. In cycling, the rider sits on a saddle and doesn’t put undue stress on his or her joints as, for example, a runner does. High-impact training is the opposite of low-impact training. It is a sport or exercise that impacts the joints, such as running, jumping rope, and gymnastics. Football is high-impact not because there is a physical contact or impact between players but because running and blocking impacts the joints. When done properly, high-impact training improves bone density, can burn calories faster, and helps improve stability. HOWTHE BODYMOVES To understand how these two trainingmethods affect your body, we need to understand how your bodymoves.


Collisions are not the thing that makes football high impact. That comes from the stress the sport puts on joints.

Your bones connect to various joints in your body. There are three types: the fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints . The latter two of these are relevant to training. Your cartilaginous joints are those found in your spine. As the name implies, they use cartilage to connect your joints, or in this case your vertebra, and provide partial mobility, allowing you to bend and twist your body into a number of positions. Synovial joints make up themajority of your joints and allow the greatest movement andmobility. Examples of these are your wrists, your shoulders, and your hips. Bones connecting these joints have a smooth tissue at the end called the articular cartilage. Synovial fluid is within the joint and acts as a lubricant. The articular cartilage and the


Low Impact Training

synovial fluidwork together so the joint moves smoothly and compresses to absorb shock. Synovial joints are then classified into the following types of movement: 1. Hinge joint . These only allowone direction of movement like in your knees. 2. Pivot joint . These allow movement from side-to 3. Ball-and-socket joint . These provide the greatest mobility. An example is your shoulders. 4. Saddle joint. These allow flexion and extension, as side. The top of your neck is an example.


Even though they are classified as joints, fibrous joints don’t move. The joints on the top of your skull bone are examples of fibrous joints. This dome consists of bony plates that join together when your body is done growing. Connecting these plates are the fibrous joints. Inmany ways, they act more like a link rather than merely a joint. Another example is the fibrous joints that hold your teeth in place in your jawbone.

well as adduction and abduction. Where the thumb attaches to your hand is a saddle joint.

Watch this short video about ball-and-socket joints to better understand their use and where they are located in your body.


What is Low-Impact Training?

The knee is a synovial joint that is also a hinge joint.


Low Impact Training

5. Condyloid joints. These are similar to saddle joints in the movements they allow. The wrist is an example. 6. Gliding joints. These allowmovements such as the ones made by the joints found in your hand. Your muscles connect your bones and joints and enable you tomove. There are two types of muscles: 1. Flexor 2. Extensor Let’s say youwant to pick up a glass that’s on a table. Your triceps (an extensor muscle) contracts so your armbends at the elbow (your arm straightens) to reach the glass. To raise it to take a drink, your bicep muscle (which is a flexor) retracts your armback toward your body. HOWIMPACT TRAINING AFFECTS JOINTS Studies done in 2014 and 2016 by researchers at the US National Library of Medicine and National Institute of Health found that walking on a level surface produced about .5 times body weight of joint force on the patellofemoral joint (located between your kneecap and your femur bone). Jumping, however, produced 20 times body weight on the same joint. In this example, walking, which is low impact, puts less strain on the joint than jumping, which is high impact. This is why high-impact training is associated with sports injuries like a torn anterior cruciate ligament or a sprained ankle. This isn’t to say that high-impact training should be avoided. In fact, when used in conjunction with low-impact training, it can be beneficial. At the same time, when overused or done with improper technique, high-impact training can lead to injuries or long-term conditions like arthritis. If you’re new to high-impact training, seek guidance from a coach or trainer before you start.


What is Low-Impact Training?

Knee injuries are common in high-impact sports such as soccer.

ADVANTAGES OF LOW IMPACT TRAINING Since low-impact training is easier on the joints than high-impact training, it is perfect for teens of all athletic abilities or those looking to have funwhile exercising. A great example of this is the game of golf. Walking 18 holes with friends while pulling or carrying your bags is a


Low Impact Training

great exercise. If golf isn’t for you, then consider yoga or Pilates or certain forms of dance. For those whowant amore challenging workout, low-impact training can be done at amoderate intensity as well as high intensity. Take cycling. Biking along the beach for four miles while talking to a friend is a low-intensity workout. However, if you bump up the pace and increase the distance to 30miles then you have amoderate level intensity. Add a hill or a sprint and you nowhave a high-intensity workout. There are also low-impact high-intensity interval training (HIIT) classes that offer calorie burning, heart-pumping workouts. Aside frombeing easier on your joints, low-impact training has been shown to benefit those with type 2 diabetes; relieves stress and anxiety; improves one’s self image; and reduces weight. It’s been shown that people with anxiety disorders who exercised frequently were able to reduce their symptoms compared to those who didn’t exercise. Here are some explanations towhy this is:

WHATARE PILATES? Pilates is a formof exercise that uses low-impact flexibility as well as muscular strength and endurancemovements. Joseph Pilates, a German athlete, created this unique exercise programafter World War I to help rehabilitate fellow prisoners of war. Since then, Pilates has grown to be used all over the world. One form of Pilates uses a spring-loaded apparatus called a reformer, but you can also do Pilates on amat. Pilates mainly targets your core but is also excellent for toning your whole body, improving your posture, and increasing flexibility. If you’re interested in Pilates, seek out a class or an instructor for proper technique and training.

› Exercise takes your mind off your worries. › Exercise relieves tensemuscles that can result fromanxiety. › Raising your heart alters your brain’s chemistry and produces anti anxiety neurochemicals such as serotonin.


What is Low-Impact Training?

Be sure to talk to your doctor about your anxiety so he or she can assist in your treatment plan. Whether you are a serious athlete or a beginner, the key to success is finding a low-impact activity that you like and sticking with it. Invite your friends to join you, and in no time you’ll be on the road to a new you.

Pilates targets the body’s core, but is also great for improving posture and flexibility.


Low Impact Training

This short video is a quick primer on the low-impact benefits of rowing.

TEXT-DEPENDENT QUESTIONS 1. Low-impact training is defined as being a non-contact sport. True or false? 2. List three advantages to using low-impact training. 3. What is the other name given for “freelymoving” joints? RESEARCHPROJECT Get together with your friends and pick a song you all like. Do some research to create a low-impact dance routine that goes along with themusic. Remember that jumping, hopping, and leaping are high impact and shouldn’t be used in this project. Once you have performed your dance, answer these questions: > > Could you dance fromstart to finishwithout stopping? If not, then keep practicing andmake note of how far you get the next time. > > Howdo your muscles feel? If they are tight or sore, then allowa day of rest before dancing again. If they feel fine, then continue dancing.


What is Low-Impact Training?

WORDS TO UNDERSTAND aerobic— relating to activity that increases the body’s demand for oxygen thereby resulting in a marked temporary increase in respiration and heart rate anaerobic— relating to activity in which the body incurs an oxygen debt cognitive— relating to or involving conscious intellectual activity (such as thinking, reasoning, or remembering) endorphins— any of a group of peptides occurring in the brain and other tissues of vertebrates, and resembling opiates, that react with the brain’s opiate receptors to raise the pain threshold hippocampus— the elongated ridges on the floor of each lateral ventricle of the brain, thought to be the center of emotion, memory, and the autonomic nervous system


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